Alternate name(s)

Theory of structuration, Structurationism

Main dependent construct(s)/factor(s)

Structure (signification, domination, legitimation), social system.

Main independent construct(s)/factor(s)

Modalities (interpretive scheme, facilities or resources, norms or rules); interactions (communication, power, sanction); consciousness (discursive, practical, unconsciousness); knowledgeability.

Concise description of theory

In a number of articles in the late 1970s and early 1980s, culminating in the publication of The Constitution of Society in 1984, British sociologist Anthony Giddens developed the theory of structuration, which addressed fundamental problems in the social sciences in a way that was unconventional at the time. Moreover, he provided an account of the constitution of social life that departed from and challenged established theoretical positions and traditions (Cohen 1989). Structuration theory drew significant attention, and numerous books and papers promptly emerged discussing, scrutinizing, supporting or criticizing Giddens’s ideas. A number of comprehensive and authoritative texts on the topic already exist (e.g. Cohen 1989; Giddens 1976, 1984, 1989, 1990; Giddens and Pierson 1998; Held and Thompson 1989).

The duality of structure: The relationship between agency and structure is among the most pervasive and difficult issues in social theory. How are actions of individual agents related to the structural features of society? How are actions structured in everyday contexts? How are the structured features of actions reproduced? To examine the dualism between structure and agency, Giddens departed from the conceptualization of structure as some given or external form. Structure is what gives form and shape to social life, but it is not itself the form and shape. Structure exists only in and through the activities of human agents (Giddens 1989: 256). Similarly, he departed from the idea of agency as something just ‘contained’ within the individual. Agency does not refer to people’s intentions in doing things but rather to the flow or pattern of people’s actions. Giddens deeply reformulated the notions of structure and agency, emphasizing that ‘action, which has strongly routinized aspects, is both conditioned by existing cultural structures and also creates and recreates those structures through the enactment process’ (Walsham 1993: 34). He suggested that while structural properties of societies and social systems are real, they have no physical existence. Instead, they depend upon regularities of social reproduction (Giddens and Pierson 1998). As a consequence, the basic domain of study in the social sciences consists of social practices ordered across space and time (Giddens 1984: 2).

Structuration theory and information technology: Structuration theory is a general theory of the social sciences; in its original formulation, ST pays little attention to technology (Jones 1997). However, given the pervasiveness of technology in organizations’ everyday operations, and especially the role of information technology in the process of enactment and reality construction in contemporary organizations, some attempts have been made to extend Giddens’s ideas by including an explicit IT dimension in social analysis (Walsham 1993, 2002). As a result of such attempts, structurationist analyses have helped to increase our understanding of important IT-based contemporary phenomena. Some recent examples are studies on electronic trading and work transformation in the London insurance market (Barrett and Walsham 1999); globalization issues and IT deployment in India and Britain (Nicholson and Sahay 2001; Walsham and Sahay 1999); the dynamics of groupware application (Ngwenyama 1998); communication and collaboration using IT (Olesen and Myers 1999); global virtual team dynamics and effectiveness (Maznevski and Chudoba 2000); and crosscultural software production and use (Walsham 2002).

Source: Pozzebon, Marlei & Pinsonneault, Alain. “Challenges in Conducting Empirical Work Using Structuration Theory: Learning from IT Research”, Organization Studies, 26 (9), pp.1353-1376, 2005.

Diagram/schematic of theory

Structure Signification Domination Legitimation
Modality Interpretive scheme Facility Norm
Interaction Communication Power Sanction
Structure(s) System(s) Structuration
Rules and resources, or set of transformation relations, organized as properties of social systems Reproduced relations between actors or collectivises, organized as regular social practices Conditions governing the continuity or transmutation of structures, and therefore the reproduction of social systems

Source: Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Originating author(s)

Anthony Giddens

Seminal articles

Cohen, I.J. (1989). Structuration Theory: Anthony Giddens and the Constitution of Social Life. St Martin’s Press, New York, 1989.

Giddens, A. (1976). New Rules of Sociological Method, Basic Books, Hutchinson/New York.

Giddens, A. (1979). Central Problems in Social Theory. London: Macmillan.

Giddens, A. (1981). Agency, Institution, and Time-Space Analysis. In: Advances in Social Theory and Methodology. Toward An Integration of Micro- and Macro-Sociologies. Knorr-Cetina, K. and Cicourel, A.V. (Eds.). Routledge & Kegan Paul, Boston.

Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity, Standford University Press, Standford.

Giddens, A. and Pierson, C. (1998). Conversations with Anthony Giddens – Making Sense of Modernity. Polity Press, Cambridge.

Held, D. and Thompson, J.B. (1989) Social Theory of Modern Societies, Anthony Giddens and his Critics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Turner, J.H. (1991). Structuration Theory. In The Structure of Sociological Theory, Giddens, A., Wadsworth.

Originating area

Social sciences

Level of analysis

From individual to macro and from macro to individual.

IS articles that use the theory

Barley, S.R. (1986). Technology as an Occasion for Structuring: Evidence from Observation of CT Scanners and the Social Order of Radiology Departments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31: 78-108.

Barley, S.R. (1990). Images of Imaging: Notes on Doing Longitudinal Field Work. Organization Science, 1: 220-242.

Barley, S.R and Tolbert, P.S. (1997). Institutionalization and structuration: studying the links between action and institution. Organization Studies 18 (1): 93-118.

Barrett, M. and Walsham, G. (1999) Electronic trading and work transformation in the London Insurance Market. Information Systems Research 10 (1): 1-21.

Brooks, L. (1997), Structuration Theory and New Technology: Analysing Organisationally Situated Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Information Systems Journal, 7, pp. 133-151.

Davidson, E.J. (2002). Technology Frames and Framing: a Socio-cognitive Investigation of Requirements Determination. MIS Quarterly, 26 (4): 329-358.

DeSanctis, G. and Poole, M.S. (1994). Capturing the Complexity in Advanced Technology Use: Adaptive Structuration Theory. Organization Science, 5 (2): 121-147.

Heracleous, L. and Barrett, M. (2001). Organizational Change as Discourse: Communicative Actions and Deep Structures in the Context of Information Technology Implementation. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (4): 755-778.

Jones, M. (1997) ‘Structuration theory and IT,’ in Re-thinking Management Information Systems. Currie and Galliers (eds.), 103-135. Oxford.

Jones, M. and Karsten, H. (2003). Review: structuration theory and information systems research’. WP 11/03. Judge Institute Working Papers, University of Cambridge, 87 pages.

Jones, M., Orlikowski, W. and Munir, K. (2004) "Structuration theory and information." In Mingers, J. and Willcocks, L. (eds.): Social theory and philosophy for information systems. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp.297-328

Karsten, H. (1995) Converging paths to notes – in search of computer-based information systems in a networked company.’ Information Technology & People 8 (1): 7-34.

Lea, M.; O’Shea, T. and Fung, P. (1995) Constructing the networked organization: content and context in the development of electronic communications. Organization Science 6 (4): 462-478.

Lyytinen, K. and Ngwenyama, O.K. (1992). What does computer support for co-operative work mean? A structurational analysis of computer supported co-operative work. Accounting, Management and Information Technology. 2 (1): 19-37.

Majchrzak, A. et al. (2000). Technology adaptation: the case of a computer-supported interorganizational virtual team, MIS Quarterly 24 (4): 569-600.

Maznevski, M. and Chudoba, K.M. (2000) Bridging space over time: global virtual team dynamics and effectiveness. Organization Science 11 (5): 473-492.

McPhee, R.D., and Poole, M.S. (2002) Structures and configurations, In The New Handbook of Organizational Communication: Advances in Theory, Research, and Method. Frederic M. Jablin and Linda L. Putnam (eds.). Sage.

Montealegre, R. (1997). The interplay of information technology and the social milieu. Information Technology & People 10 (2): 106-131.

Newman, M. and Robey, D. 1992. A Social Process Model of User-analyst Relationships. MIS Quarterly, 16 (2): 249-266.

Ngwenyama, O.N. (1998). Groupware, Social Action and Organizational Emergence: on the Process Dynamics of Computer Mediated Distributed Work. Accounting, Management and Information Technology. 8: 127-146

Ngwenyama, O. (1998). Groupware, social action and organizational emergence: on the process dynamics of computer mediated distributed work. Accounting, Management and Information Technology: 127-146.

Nicholson, B. and Sahay, S. (2001). Some political and cultural issues in the globalization of software development: case experience from Britain and India. Information and Organization 11: 25-43.

Olesen, K. and Myers, M.D. (1999). Trying to improve communication and collaboration with information technology – an action research project which failed. Information Technology & People 12 (4): 317-332.

Orlikowski, W.J. (1992). The Duality of Technology: Rethinking the Concept of Technology in Organizations. Organization Science, 3 (3), 398-427.

Orlikowski, W.J. (1993). CASE Tools as Organizational Change: Investigating Increment. MIS Quarterly, 17 (3), 309-340.

Orlikowski, W.J. (1996). Improvising Organizational Transformation over Time: a Situated Change Perspective. Information Systems Research, 7 (1), 63-92.

Orlikowski, W. J. (2000) Using Technology and Constituting Structures: a Practice Lens for Studying Technology in Organizations. Organization Science, 11 (4), 404-428

Orlikowski, W. and Barley, S.R. (2001). Technology and institutions: what can research on information technology and research on organizations learn from each other? MIS Quarterly 25 (2): 245-265.

Orlikowski, W.J. and Hofman, J.D. 1997. An Improvisational Model for Change Management: the Case of Groupware. Sloan Management Science, 38 (2), 11-21.

Orlikowski, W.J. and Robey, D. 1991. Information Technology and the Structuring of Organizations. Information Systems Research, 2 (2), 143-169.

Orlikowski, W.J. and Yates, J. 1994. Genre Repertoire: the Structuring of Communicative Practices in Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39 (4), 541-574.

Orlikowski, W.J. et al. (1995) Shaping Electronic Communication: the Metastructuring of Technology in the Context of Use. Organization Science, 6 (4), 423-444.

Phang, C. W., and Kankanhalli, A. "Organizational Culture, Learning, Politics, and Institutions: A Structurational Framework of IT-Induced Organizational Change," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, 11-14th December 2005, Las Vegas .

Pozzebon, M. and Pinsonneault, A. (2005). Global-local Negotiations for Implementing Configurable Packages: the Power of Initial Organizational Decisions”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Special Issue Understanding the Contextual Influences on Enterprise System Implementation, (Part II), 14 (2): 121-145.

Pozzebon, M. and Pinsonneault, A. (2005). Challenges in Conducting Empirical Work Using Structuration Theory: Learning from IT Research, Organization Studies, 26 (9): 1353-1376.

Ranson, S., Hinings, B. and Greenwood, R. (1980). The Structuring of Organizational Structures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 1-17.

Rose, Jeremy (2002). Interaction, transformation and information systems development – an extended application of soft systems methodology. Information Technology and People 15 (3): 242-268.

Sahay, S. (1997). Implementation of Information Technology: a Time-space Perspective. Organization Studies, 18 (2), 229-260.

Sahay, S. (1998). Implementation of GIS technology in India: some issues of time and space. Accounting, Management and Information technologies 8 (2-3): 147-188.

Sahay, S. and Walsham, G. (1997). Social Structure and Managerial Agency in India. Organization Studies, 18 (3), 415-444.

Sahay, S. Robey, D. (1996). Organizational context, social interpretation, and the implementation and consequences of geographic information systems. Accounting, Management and Information Technology 6 (4): 255-282.

Sarker, S. and Sahay, S. "Understanding Virtual Team Development: An Interpretive Study," Journal of the AIS (JAIS), Vol. 4, Article 1, 2003, pp. 1-38.

Stein, E.W. and Vandenbosch, B. (1996). Organizational learning during advanced system development: opportunities and obstacles. Journal of Management Information Systems 13 (2): 115-136.

Walsham, G. (2002). Cross-cultural software production and use: a structurational analysis. MIS Quarterly 26 (4): 359-380.

Walsham, G. and Han, C.K. (1991) Structuration theory and information systems research. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis 17: 77-85.

Walsham, G. and Ham, C.K. (1993). Information Systems Strategy Formation and Implementation: the Case of Central Government Agency. Accounting Management and Information Technology, 3: 191-209.

Walsham, G., and Sahay, S. (1999). GIS for District-level Administration in India: Problems and Opportunities, MIS Quarterly, 23 (1), 39-65.

Walsham, G., and Waema, T. (1994). Information Systems Strategy and Implementation: a Case Study of a Building Society, ACM Transactions on Information Systems 12 (2), 150-173.

Yates, J. and Orlikowski, W.J. (1992). Genres of Organizational Communication: a Structurational Approach to Studying Communication and Media. The Academy of Management Review.

Yates, J., Orlikowski, W.J. and Okamura, K. (1995). Constituting Genre Repertoires: Deliberate and Emergent Patterns of Electronic Media Use. The Academy of Management Journal Best Papers Proceedings, 353-357.

Links from this theory to other theories

Adaptive structuration theory, Organizational knowledge creation

External links Chapter prepared by Paul Gingrich for the course Sociology 319 - Contemporary Social Theory – University of Regina, Department of Sociology and Social Studies Paper written by Jeremy Rose, ECIS1998., from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. , from (integrated reference answers) , extracted from the book Media, Gender and Identity by David Gauntlett

Original Contributor(s)

Marlei Pozzebon and Alain Pinsonneault

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From http// 에서 가져옴.



Alternate name(s)

Critical Theory, Critical Theory of Society

Main dependent construct(s)/factor(s)

Emancipation(해방), social equity(사회적 평등)

Main independent construct(s)/factor(s)

Conflict(갈등), opposition(반대)

Concise description of theory

Critical researchers assume that social reality is historically constituted and that it is produced and reproduced by people. Although people can consciously act to change their social and economic circumstances, critical researchers recognize that their ability to do so is constrained by various forms of social, cultural and political domination. The main task of critical research is seen as being one of social critique, whereby the restrictive and alienating conditions of the status quo are brought to light. Critical research focuses on the oppositions, conflicts and contradictions in contemporary society, and seeks to be emancipatory i.e. it should help to eliminate the causes of alienation and domination.

비판적 연구자들은 사회 현실은 역사적으로 만들어진 것이며, 인간에 의해 생산 및 재생산된다고 가정한다.
비록 사람드이 사회와 경제환경을 바꾸기 위해 의식적으로 활동 할 수 있다고 하더라도, 비판적인 연구자들은 이러한 행동이 사회,문화,정치 통지 행위등의 형태들로 제약을 받는다고 인식하고 있다.
비판적 연구의 주요 주제는 사회적 비판의 하나로 간주할 수 있는데, 현상유지를 위한 제한적이고 상이한 조건들을 폭로하는 것이다.
비판적 연구는 현대사회의 반대,갈등,모순에 초점을 맞추고 해방을 추구한다.


Diagram/schematic of theory


Originating author(s)

Max Horkheimer, Jurgen Habermas

Seminal articles

Habermas, J. Towards a Rational Society, London:Heinemann, 1971.

Habermas, J. Knowledge and Human Interests, London:Heinemann, 1972.

Habermas, J. Theory and Practice, Boston:Beacon, 1973.

Habermas, J. Communication and the Evolution of Society, London:Heinemann, 1979.

Habermas, J. The Theory of Communicative Action: Reason and Rationalization of Society(1), Boston:Beacon, 1973.

Habermas, J. The Theory of Communicative Action: Lifeworld and Social System (2), Boston:Beacon, 1987.

Originating area

Sociology, Philosophy

Level of analysis

Group, Society

IS articles that use the theory

Adam, A. (2002). Exploring the gender question in critical information systems. Journal of Information Technology, 17(2), 59.

Alstyne, M. V., & Brynjolfsson, E. (2005). Global village or cyber-balkans? modeling and measuring the integration of electronic communities. Management Science, 51(6), 851.

Baroudi, J. J. (1991). Studying information technology in organizations: Research approaches and assumptions. Information Systems Research, 2(1), 1-28.

Basden, A. (2002). The critical theory of herman dooyeweerd? Journal of Information Technology, 17(4), 257-269.

Benoit, G. (2001). Critical theory as a foundation for pragmatic information systems design. Information Research, 6(2)

Benoit, G. (2002). Toward a critical theoretic perspective in information systems. Library Quarterly, 72(4), 441-471.

Brooke, C. (2002). What does it mean to be 'critical' in IS research? Journal of Information Technology, 17(2), 49.

Calhoun, C. (2002). Information technology and the public sphere.

Clarke, S. (., & Greaves, A. (2002). IT help desk implementation: The case of an international airline. Annals of Cases on Information Technology, 4, 241-259.

Cukier, W. , Middleton, C. , & Bauer, R. The discourse of learning technology in Canada: Understanding communication distortions and their implications for decision making. Wynn, E.H., whitley, E.A., myers, M.D., DeGross, J.I.. (2003). global and organizational discourse about information technology. IFIP TC8/WG8.2 working conference on global and organizational discourse about information technology(pp.197-221). norwell, MA: Kluwer academic publishers. viii+545pp.; international working conference on global & organizational discourse about information technology, 12-14 dec. 2002, barcelona, spain. 197-221.

Dennis, A. R., & Garfield, M. J. (2003). The adoption and use of GSS in project teams: Toward more participative processes and outcomes. MIS Quarterly, 27(2), 289.

Dobson, P. J. (2002). Critical realism and information systems research: Why bother with philosophy? Information Research, 7(2)

Doolin, B.. (1998). Information technology as disciplinary technology: Being critical in interpretive research on information systems. Journal of Information Technology, 13(4), 301-311.

Drake, B., Yuthas, K., & Dillard, J. F. (2000). It‘s only words -- impacts of information technology on moral dialogue. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(1), 41-59.

Ess, C. . (2002). Computer-mediated colonization, the renaissance, and educational imperatives for an intercultural global village. Ethics and Information Technology, 4(1), 11-22.

Evans, F. (1991). To "informate" or "automate": The new information technologies and democratization of the workplace. Social Theory and Practice, 17(3), 409-439.

Fitzpatrick, T. (2000). Critical cyberpolicy: Network technologies, massless citizens, virtual rights. Critical Social Policy, 20(3(64)), 375-407.

Green C.; Ruhleder K.(1995) Globalization, borderless worlds, and the tower of babel : Metaphors gone awry. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 8(4), 55

Heng, M. S. H. & de Moor, A. (2003). From habermas's communicative theory to practice on the internet. Information Systems Journal, 13(4), 331-352.

Henwood, F., & Hart, A. (2003). Articulating gender in the context of ICTs in health care: The case of electronic patient records in the maternity services. Critical Social Policy, 23(2(75)), 249-267.

Hirschheim, Rudy, Klein, K, H. (1994). Realizing emancipatory principles in information systems development: The case for ETHICS. MIS Quarterly, 18(1), 83.

Klein, H. K. (. (2004). Seeking the new and the critical in critical realism: Deja vu? Information and Organization, 14(2), 123-144.

Klein, H. K., & Hirschheim, R. (. (1991). Rationality concepts in information system development methodologies. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 1(2), 157-187.

Klein, H. K., & Myers, M. D. (1999). A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS Quarterly, 23(1), 67.

Lee, A. S. (1999). Rigor and relevance in MIS research: Beyond the approach of positivism alone. MIS Quarterly, 23(1), 29.

Lehtinen, E., & Lyytinen, K. (. (1986). Action based model of information system. Information Systems, 11(4), 299-317.

Libecap, G. D. (1997). Critical social and technological factors affecting entrepreneurial midsize firms. and London: JAI Press.

Lyytinen, K., & Hirschheim, R. (. (1988). Information systems as rational discourse: An application of habermas's theory of communicative action. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 4(1-2), 19-30.

Lyytinen, K. J. , & Ngwenyama, O. K. (. (1992). What does computer support for cooperative work mean? a structurational analysis of computer supported cooperative work. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 2(1), 19-37.

Madsen, K. H. . Breakthrough by breakdown: Metaphors and structured domains. Klein, H.K., kumar, K.. (1987). systems development for human progress. proceedings of the IFIP WG 8.2 working conference on information systems development for human progress in organizations(pp.41-53). Amsterdam: North-Holland. xi+305pp.; systems development for human progress. proceedings of the IFIP WG 8.2 working conference on information systems development for human progress in organizations, 29-31 May 1987, Atlanta, GA, USA. IFIP, 41-53.

Majchrzak, A., Malhotra, A., & John, R. (2005). Perceived individual collaboration know-how development through information technology-enabled contextualization: Evidence from distributed teams. Information Systems Research, 16(1), 9.

Martin-Barbero, J. (2001). Communicative transformations and technologies of the public. Metapolitica, 5(17), 46-55.

McGrath, K. . ICTs supporting targetmania: How the UK health sector is trying to modernise. Korpela, M., Montealegre, R., Poulymenakou, A.. (2003). IFIP TC8 & TC9/WG8.2 & WG9.4 working conference on information systems perspectives and challenges in the context of globalization(pp.19-34). dordrecht: Kluwer academic publishers. viii+464pp.; IFIP TC8 & TC9/WG8.2 & WG9.4 working conference on information systems perspectives and challenges in the context of globalization, 15-17 June 2003, Athens, Greece. 19-34.

Michael, D. M. , & Leslie, W. Y. (. (1997). Hidden agendas, power and managerial assumptions in information systems development : An ethnographic study. Information Technology & People, 10(3), 224.

Mingers, J. C.. (1980). Towards an appropriate social theory for applied systems thinking: Critical theory and soft systems methodology. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, 7, 41-49.

Mingers, J. (2001). Combining IS research methods: Towards a pluralist methodology. Information Systems Research, 12(3), 240.

Myers, M. D. (1995). Dialectical hermeneutics: A theoretical framework for the implementation of information systems. [Electronic]. Information Systems Journal, 5(1), 51-70. Retrieved 20 sep 2005, from the Business Source database.

Myers, M. D. (1994). A disaster for everyone to see: An interpretive analysis of a failed is project. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 4(4), 185-201.

Nettleton, S. & Burrows, R. (2003). E-scaped medicine? information, reflexivity and health. Critical Social Policy, 23(2(75)), 165-185.

Ngwenyama, O. K., & Lee, A. S. (1997). Communication richness in electronic mail: Critical social theory and the contextuality of meaning. MIS Quarterly, 21(2), 145.

O'Donnell, D., & Henriksen, L. B. (2002). Philosophical foundations for a critical evaluation of the social impact of ICT. Journal of Information Technology, 17(2), 89.

Orlikowski, W. J. (1991). Integrated information environment or matrix of control? the contradictory implications of information technology. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 1(1), 9-42.

Pete, R., & Andrew, W. (. (2002). Information fluency: Critically examining IT education. New Library World, 103(11/12), 427.

Puri, S. K. , & Sahay, S. (. (2003). Participation through communicative action: A case study of GIS for addressing land/water development in india. Information Technology for Development, 10(3), 179.

Reffell, P., & Whitworth, A. (2002). Information fluency: Critically examining IT education. New Library World, 103(11-12 (1182-83)), 427-435.

Roderick, R. (1989). Beyond a boundary: Baudrillard and new critical theory. Current Perspectives in Social Theory, 9, 3-4.

Salvador, T. , Sherry, J. W. (., & Urrutia, A. E. (. (2005). Less cyber, more café: Enhancing existing small businesses across the digital divide with ICTs. Information Technology for Development, 11(1), 77.

Sassi, S. (1996). The network and the fragmentation of the public sphere. Javnost/The Public, 3(1), 25-41.

Schoop, M. Representing heterogeneous viewpoints of healthcare professionals. Gerdin, U., tallberg, M., wainwright, P.. (1997). nursing informatics. the impact of nursing knowledge on health care informatics(pp.603). amsterdam: IOS press. xxv+630pp.; nursing informatics. the impact of nursing knowledge on health care informatics, 1997, sweden. 603.

Shivraj, K.. (2004). On the emancipatory role of rural information systems. Information Technology & People, 17(4), 407.

Southwick, R., & Sawyer, S. (. Critical views of organization, management, and information technology: Applying critical social theory to information system research. Haseman, W.D., nazareth, D.L.. (1999). proceedings of the fifth americas conference on information systems (AMCIS 1999)(pp.178-180). atlanta, GA: Assoc. inf. syst. xxiv+1035pp.; proceedings of AIS AMCIS 99: 1999 americas conference on information systems, 13-15 aug. 1999, milwaukee, WI, USA. assoc. inf. syst, 178-180.

Stahl, B. C. (2001). Responsibility in the interconnected economy. Business Ethics: A European Review, 10(3), 213-222.

Urey, G. (2002). A critical look at the use of computing technologies in planning education: The case of the spreadsheet in introductory methods. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21(4), 406-418.

Varey, R. J., Wood-Harper, T., & Wood, B. (2002). A theoretical review of management and information systems using a critical communications theory. Journal of Information Technology, 17(4), 229.

Waring, T. (2004). Communicating the complexity of integrating information systems: A case study of the procurement of a payroll-personnel system. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 4(4), 431-448.

Waring, T., & Wainwright, D. (2002). Enhancing clinical and management discourse in ICT implementation. Journal of Management in Medicine, 16(2/3), 133-149.

Whitley, E. A., & Scothern, R. (1998). Creating and maintaining obligations with emerging technologies: An empirical study of mediated and face-to-face communication. Journal of Computing and Information Technology - CIT, 6(3), 343-353.

Yetim, F. (2006). Acting with genres: discursive-ethical concepts for reflecting on and legitimating genres. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(1), 54-69.

Links from this theory to other theories

Language action perspective, Interpretivist research

External links, Centre for Critical Social Theory - University of Sussex, Wikipedia entry on CST , Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, AIS qualitative resource site, includes descriptions of different types of qualitative research and extensive reference lists, encyclopedia

Original Contributor(s)

Hossam Ali-Hassan

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