'Study & Analysis/Value of Knowledge '에 해당되는 글 4건

  1. 2007.08.13 [Value&Knowledge-Strategy] ADL Matrix - Artrhur D.Little
  2. 2007.08.11 [Value&Knowledge-Strategy] 7S Framework - Mckinsey
  3. 2007.08.10 [Value&Knowledge-Strategy] 3C's Model - Ohmae
  4. 2007.03.06 3정 5S

Summarized by Warren.pak  
From www.mindtools.com
, ADL.co.kr

ADL Matrix

How industry position influences your strategy

Part of thinking about strategy involves thinking about the state of your industry; understanding how your organization fits into it; and, from this, figuring out your best way forward.

While there are many tools that help you do this, you can get particularly useful insights with the Arthur D Little (ADL) Matrix. Developed in the late 1970s by the highly respected Arthur D Little consulting company, it helps you think about strategy based on:

  • Competitive Position – How strong is your strategic position?
  • Industry Maturity – At what stage of its lifecycle is the industry?

Using the ADL Matrix

If your business unit has a strong market presence and a newly emerging product line, you’ll likely want to aggressively push its position and capture as much market share as you can. But this strategy does not apply so well to business lines with dominant competitive positions in declining markets. In this instance, you’re better off putting your energy into new, growing markets and simply maintaining your current market position in the declining industry.

The ADL Matrix addresses these unique needs by recommending general strategies for different combinations of competitive position and industry maturity.

The ADL Matrix is often associated with strategic planning at business unit level. However it works equally well when applied to product lines, or at the level of an individual product.

Industry Maturity
There are four categories of industry maturity (also referred to as the industry life cycle):

  1. Embryonic – The introduction stage, characterized by rapid market growth, very little competition, new technology, high investment and high prices.

  2. Growth – The market continues to strengthen, sales increase, few (if any) competitors exist, and company reaps rewards for bringing a new product to market.

  3. Mature – The market is stable, there’s a well-established customer base, market share is stable, there are lots of competitors, and energy is put toward differentiating from competitors.

  4. Aging – Demand decreases, companies start abandoning the market, the fight for market share among remaining competitors gets too expensive, and companies begin leaving or consolidating until the market’s demise.

Competitive Position
The five categories for competitive position are as follows:

  1. Dominant – This is rare and typically short-lived. There’s little, if any, competition, usually a result of bringing a brand-new product to market or having built an extremely strong reputation in the market (think Microsoft).

  2. Strong – Market share is strong and stable, regardless of what your competitors are doing.

  3. Favorable – Your business line enjoys competitive advantages in certain segments of the market. However, there are many rivals of equal strength, and you have to work to maintain your advantage.

  4. Tenable – Your position in the overall market is small, and market share is based on a niche, a strong geographic location, or some other product differentiation. Strong competitors are overtaking your market share by building their products and defining clear competitive advantages.

  5. Weak – There’s continual loss of market share, and your business line, as it exists, is too small to maintain profitability.

The resulting ADL Matrix looks like this, with the various strategies prescribed for each of the 20 combinations:

    Industry Maturity (industry Life Cycle Stage)
    Embryonic Growth Mature Aging
Dominant -Aggressive push for market share - Maintain industry position and market share - Maintain position, grow market share as the industry grows - Maintain industry position
- Invest faster than market share dictates - Invest to sustain growth - Reinvest as necessary - Reinvest as necessary
Strong -Aggressive push for market share -Aggressive push for market share - Maintain position, grow market share as the industry grows - Maintain industry position or cut expenditures to maximize profit (harvest)
- Look for ways to improve competitive advantage - Look for ways to improve competitive advantage - Reinvest as necessary - Minimum reinvestment
- Invest faster than market share dictates - Invest to increase growth and position    
Favorable - Moderate to Aggressive push for market share - Look for ways to improve competitive advantage and market share - Develop a niche or other strong differentiating factor and maintain it. - Cut expenditures to maximize profit (harvest) or plan a phased withdrawal
- Look for ways to improve competitive advantage - Selectively invest to improve position - Minimum or selective reinvestment - Minimum investment or look to get out of current investment
- Invest selectively      
Tenable - Look for ways to improve industry position - Develop a niche or other strong differentiating factor and maintain it - Develop a niche or other strong differentiating factor and maintain it or plan a phased withdrawal. - Phased withdrawal or abandon market
- Invest very selectively - Invest selectively - Selective reinvestment - Get out of investments or divest
Weak - Decide if potential benefits outweigh costs, otherwise get out of market - Look for ways to improve share and position, or get out of the market - Look for ways to improve share and position or plan a phased withdrawal - Abandon market
- Invest or divest - Invest or divest - Selectively invest or divest - Divest

Using the ADL Matrix

The ADL Matrix provides you with a generic strategy. You’ll need to fine-tune the strategy and tailor it to your current business.

Step #1: Identify your industry maturity category.
Think about the following questions as you decide which stage is
most descriptive:

  • What are you currently experiencing with market growth?
  • How many competitors do you have?
  • How large is your market?
  • Is your investment increasing or decreasing?
  • Are your sales increasing, decreasing or staying the same?
  • How is your product differentiated from competitor products?

Deciding on an industry life cycle stage isn’t easy, and competitors’ actions often have a bearing on this, making it hard to determine and predict. Strategy is not an exact science, so do the best you can.

Step #2: Determine your competitive position.
Choose the best fit. Be careful not to project what you want your position to be, but what it truly is. Take a long, hard look at where you’re currently operating.


If you’re having trouble finding the perfect match for maturity level or competitive position, look for the combination that most closely fits your situation.

Step #3: Plot your matrix position.
Consider the strategies suggested as a starting point for your strategic planning.


Look at the strategy recommended as well as those strategies immediately surrounding it. It can be difficult to pinpoint either of the dimensions, and your business may be on the cusp between two positions. By examining close options, you can choose the general strategic formula with the best fit.

It is important to remember that while the ADL Matrix points you in a general strategic direction; you will probably want to perform further, more detailed analysis before making a final strategic plan. So verify you strategic choice using one or more other strategy tools such as USP Analysis, Porter’s Five Forces or Bowman’s Strategy Clock, and then work out what internal changes you will need to make to implement the strategy effectively. The McKinsey 7S Framework is among the tools that will help you with this.

Key points:

The ADL Matrix is a great tool for uncovering high level strategies that may be successful for your business.

By focusing on competitive position and industry maturity, the matrix helps you see the role your business plays in the larger marketplace. With this big picture view, complemented by other strategy tools, you will have a great starting place for building your strategic plan.

Arthur D. Little, Inc.

ADL(Arthur D. Little)은 세계 최초 컨설팅 회사로서 1886년 창립된 이래 축적된 산업지식과 다양한 분야에서 얻은 기능적 경험 및 전문 기술을 통해 고객의 성장과 성공적인 가치창출에 많은 기여를 해왔습니다.

전세계 30개국에 위치한 ADL 사무소에는 약 2,000명이 넘는 전문컨설턴트들이 활동하고 있습니다. 또한 ADL은 파트너사인 Altran GroupCambridge Consultants Ltd.와 함께 18,000명의 전문인력을 보유하고 있으며, 고객에게 최상의 컨설팅 서비스를 제공합니다. 매년 세계 60여 개국에서 3,000여개의 컨설팅 케이스를 담당하고 있으며, 다른 유수 기업과 정부기관은 물론, 포춘지 선정 100대 기업의 75%를 대상으로 컨설팅 서비스를 수행하고 있습니다.

기업들은 재빠른 세계화의 확산과 규제완화, 그리고 기술변화로 인해 기업전략 및 프로세스를 재고하고 재설계 함으로써 비용절감의 효과를 높이고 기업성장을 도모하는 노력을 부단히 기울이고 있습니다. 이에, ADL은 다양한 산업 부문별/기능별로 축적된 경험과 전문성을 바탕으로 고객들의 목표 달성을 위해 차별화된 서비스를 제공하고 있으며 이로 인해 고객들로 부터의 깊은 신뢰를 얻고 있습니다. 또한 ADLSide-by-Side원칙에 입각하여 고객의 의견과 경험을 수렴, 긴밀히 협력하고 있으며, 이러한 원칙이 항구적 발전을 가져오는데 전제조건이 된다는 데에 의견을 같이 하고 있습니다.

매 컨설팅 케이스 종료 후 도출되는 결과를 통해 ADL은 더욱 역동적이고 민첩한 조직으로 거듭나며 학습, 변화, 성장의 역량이 더욱 강화되고 있습니다. 또한 ADL은 중립적이고 독립적인 조직으로서 전략과 이행이 잘 조화될 수 있도록 핵심인재와 임직원에 대한 전문적인 T+D(Training & Development) 서비스를 제공하는 등 총체적인 노력을 기울이고 있습니다.

Posted by 노터니

Summarized by Warren.pak  
From Naver blog. www.chrisfoxinc.com , Wikipedia

Mckinsey - 7S Framework 이 모델은 전략모델 범위에서 조직개발 및 조직 혁신모델의 범주에 들어간다.
조직 개발 혁신 전략으로서  7가지 요소인 Strategy, Structure, Systems, Shared Values, Style, Staff, Skills을 사용하였다.

1) Strategy
  - 전략이 선행되어야 한다. 이 전략을 수행할 조직은 어떻게 만들고 구조화해야 하는가
  - 기존전략에 대한 재검토, 재설정 부터 경쟁우위, 자원역량, 포지셔닝을 검토하여 구체화한다.

2) Structure
  - 전략을 기반으로 조직의 구조를 정하는 요소이다. 사업분야, 사업범위 , 단위별로 나누거나 합친다.
  - 조직전략에서 핵심적인 요소

3) Systems
  - 시스템이란 조직구성원의 의사결정의 모든체계라고 볼수 있다. 조직의 운영에 대한 강한영향력과 무기로 작용한다.
  - 시스템은 궁극적으로 문화로 변화한다.

4) Share Values
  - 공유되는 가치는 조직이 가진 사명에서 출발되고 만들어진다. 작은 조직의 경우 리더에 의해 만들어 지고 공유되어야 한다.
  - 존재의 이유
  - 모든 구성원이 조직의 존속과 성공에서 결정적 영향력을 행사하는 것이다.

5) Style
- 2가지로 구분된다. 개인이 가진 본연의 스타일과 조직의 구성원으로서 스타일

6) Staff
  - 기업의 요구하는 구성원의 유형이다.
  - 비전을 공유하고 조직의 전략을 실행하도록 만들어내는 전체적인 조직 역량의 부문

7) Skills
  - 시장에서 요구하는 기술과 보유하고 있는 기술
  - 전략을 실행하는 능력이나 역량
  - 5S(Structure, Systems, Staff, Style, Share Values)에 대한 변화와 변혁의 도구

Hard Elements :Strategy,Structure,Systems
Soft Elements  :Shared Values,Skills,Style,Staff

- What is our strategy?
- How to we intend to achieve our objectives?
- How do we deal with competitive pressure?
- How are changes in customer demands dealt with?
- How is strategy adjusted for environmental issues?

- How is the company/team divided?
- What is the hierarchy?
- How do the various departments coordinate activities?
- How do the team members organize and align themselves?
- Is decision making and controlling centralized or decentralized?
- Is this as it should be, given what we're doing?
- Where are the lines of communication? Explicit and implicit?

- What are the main systems that run the organization? Consider financial and HR systems as well as communications and document storage.
- Where are the controls and how are they monitored and evaluated?
- What internal rules and processes does the team use to keep on track?

Shared Values:
- What are the core values?
- What is the corporate/team culture?
- How strong are the values?
- What are the fundamental values that the company/team was built on?

- How participative is the management/leadership style?
- How effective is that leadership?
- Do employees/team members tend to be competitive or cooperative?
- Are there real teams functioning within the organization or are they just nominal groups?

- What positions or specializations are represented within the team?
- What positions need to be filled?
- Are there gaps in required competencies?

- What are the strongest skills represented within the company/team?
- Are there any skills gaps?
- What is the company/team known for doing well?
- Do the current employees/team members have the ability to do the job?
- How are skills monitored and assessed?

McKinsey's 7-S

McKinsey & Co's 7S framework provides a useful framework for analysing the strategic attributes of an organisation. The McKinsey Consulting Firm identified strategy as only one of seven elements exhibited by the best managed companies.

Strategy, structure and systems can be considered the "hardware" of success whilst style, staff, skills and shared values can be seen as the "software".

Companies, in which these soft elements are present, are usually more successful at the implementation of strategy.Kotler, P. 1997, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 9th edition, Northwestern University, Prentice Hall Inc, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-261363-8, pp87

The 7-Ss are:

There is no particular order to the 7Ss.

Each of the 7Ss is elaborated on below:

Shared Values

Shared values means that the employees share the same guiding values. Values are things that you would strive for even if they were demonstrably not profitable. (Example: The Christians being fed to the Lions.)

Values act as an organisation's conscience, providing guidance in times of crisis.

Example 'The "famous" Johnson & Johnson Tylenol case is an example where a credo helped provide guidelines for practical decision making. When tainted Tylenol was discovered, J&J's leaders could quickly make a decision to immediately, publicly, remove all Tylenol from the nation's shelves, because they were following the organisation's credo - which said that J&J's first responsibility was to provide quality products to doctors, nurses and patients. This dramatic action helped unsure a reinstatement of both public trust and employee pride in the integrity of the company, and led to higher long term sales.'Senge, et al, 1994, pp517

Identifying corporate values is also the first essential step in defining the organisation's role in the larger community in which it functions.


The integrated vision and direction of the company, as well as the manner in which it derives, articulates, communicates and implements that vision and direction.


The policies and procedures which govern the way in which the organisation acts within itself and within its environment. The organigram (e.g. hierarchical or flat) as well as the group and ownership structure are included here. Also note Porter's categorisation of group structures: Efficient allocators of Capital; Allocation of Resources, etc.


The decision making systems within the organisation can range from management intuition, to structured computer systems to complex expert systems and artificial intelligence. It includes

  • Computer Systems,
  • Operational Systems,
  • HR Systems,
  • etc.


Style refers to the employees shared and common way of thinking and behaving - unwritten norms of behaviour and thought:

  • Leadership Style
  • Organisational Culture


Skills refers to the fact that employees have the skills needed to carry out the company's strategy. Training and Development - ensuring people know how to do their jobs and stay up to date with the latest techniques.


Staff means that the company has hired able people, trained them well and assigned them to the right jobs. Selection, training, reward and recognition, retention, motivation and assignment to appropriate work are all key issues.

McKinsey & Company is a privately owned management consulting firm that focuses on solving issues of concern to senior management in large corporations and organizations.

Known among its employees and clients simply as "The Firm" [1], James O. McKinsey & Company was founded in Chicago in 1926 by James O. ("Mac") McKinsey. McKinsey was a professor at the University of Chicago who pioneered budgeting as a management tool. Marshall Field's became a client in 1935, and soon convinced James McKinsey to leave the firm and become its CEO; however, he died unexpectedly in 1937.

Marvin Bower, who joined the firm in 1933 and succeeded James McKinsey when he left, oversaw the firm's rise to global prominence. When McKinsey died, the Chicago and New York branches of the firm split up. In 1939, with the help of the New York partners, Bower resurrected the New York office and named it McKinsey & Company. While he always gave James McKinsey credit for the firm's success, Bower established many of its guiding principles. Inspired by his experience at the law firm of Jones Day, he believed that management consulting should subscribe to the highest standards, emphasizing professionalism over any other consideration.

For many years, McKinsey was the unchallenged leader in consulting, and many of its alumni went on to head leading companies, often their former clients, generating further business for the firm. It now maintains offices on all continents (except Antarctica) and in most major cities; in the last few years, the majority of its work has derived from non-U.S. clients.

Posted by 노터니

Summarized by Warren.pak  
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 3C's Model is a strategical look at the factors needed for success. It was developed by Kenichi Ohmae, a business and corporate strategists.

The 3C’s model points out that a strategist should focus on three key factors for success. In the construction of a business strategy, three main players must be taken into account:

A. The Corporation

B. The Customer

C. The Competitors

Only by integrating these three C’s (Corporation, Customer, Competitors) in a strategic triangle, a sustained competitive advantage can exist. Ohmae refers to these key factors as the three C’s or strategic triangle.
1. The Corporation (corporate-based strategies)

기업은 다양한 전략이 필용하다. 그것은 산업분야에서 성공을 성취하기 위해 가장 핵심이 되는 기능 영역에서 경쟁사에 비해 기업의 강점을 극대화 시키는데에 초점이 맞춰져 이었야 한다.
The Corporation needs strategies aiming to maximize the corporation’s strengths relative to the competition in the functional areas that are critical to achieve success in the industry.

* 선택과 연결(selectivity and sequencing)
  기업은 경쟁에서 이기기 위하여 모든 기능부문에서 앞서갈 이유는 없다. 만일 어떠한 한 핵심영역에서 확실한 우위(decisive edge)를 점할 수 있다면, 현재 평균정도인 다른 영역들도 궁극적으로 개선될 수 있다.
  The corporation does not have to lead in every function to win. If it can gain decisive edge in one key function, it will eventually be able to improve its other functions which are now average.

* 살거냐 만들거냐(a case of make or buy) 
  예를 들어, 임금비용이 급속하게 상승하고 있는 경우, 회사의 중요 결정 사항은 조립라인 운영의 상당부분을 하청할지에 대한 것이 된다. 만일 경쟁업체가 신속하게 하청업자나 밴더에게 맞길 수 없다면, 자사와 경쟁사간의 비용구조와 수요변동에 대한 대응능력의 차이는 의미있는 전략적 시사점이 될 수 있다
  In case of rapidly rising wage costs, it becomes a critical decision for a company to subcontract a major share of its assembly operations. If its competitors are unable to shift production so rapidly to subcontractors and vendors, the resulting difference in cost structure and/ or in the companies ability to cope with demand fluctuations may have significant strategic implications.

* 비용효율성을 올리는것(improving cost-effectiveness)
3가지의 기본적인 방법으로 실행한다.
(1) 경쟁사보다 보다 효과적으로 기본 비용을 낮추는 것
(2) 주문순서, 제공하는 제품, 수행하는 기능 의 3가지 측면에서 좀 더 나은 선택을 하는 것인데,이 것은 효과가 큰 운영부문을 신중하게 선택함으로써, 다른 운영부문이 제거될 경우 각 기능부문의 비용이 판매수입보다 더 빠르게 떨어지게 된다.
(3) 기업의 다른 사업부문과 또는 심지어 다른 기업들과의 어느 핵심적인 기능을 공유하는 것.
경험에 따르면, 마케팅의 어느 한 기능 또는 그 이상의 하위기능에서 자원을 공유하는 것이 유리할 수 있다는 경우가 적지 않다.
  Improving the cost-effectiveness can be done in three ways.
First by reducing basic costs,
second by exercising greater selectivity (orders accepted, products offered, functions performed)
and third by sharing certain key functions with a corporation’s other businesses or even other companies.

2. The Customer (customer-based strategies)

  Ohame에 따르면 모든 전략의 기초는 고객이다. 의심의 여지없이 기업의 최대 관심사는 주주나 다른 당사자들이 아닌 고객의 관심이 되어야 한다. 결국 고객에게 진실된 관심을 갖는 기업이 투자자들에게도 매력을 끌게 될 것이다
  Clients are the base of any strategy according to Ohmae. Therefore, the primary goal supposed to be the interest of the customer and not those of the shareholders for example. In the long run, a company that is genuinely interested in its customers will be interesting for its investors and take care of their interests automatically.

*시장세분화가 권고될 만 하다.
Segmentation is helping to understand the customer.

1) 목적에 의한 시장 세분화(segmenting by objectives)
이것은 고객들이 동일제품을 다른 방법으로 사용한다는 것을 기반으로 차별화를 수행하는 것이다. 예를 들어, 커피의 경우 좋아서 마시는 사람과 졸지않기 위해서 마시는 사람으로 세분화를 할 수 있을 것이다.
  The differentiation is done in terms of the different ways that various customers use a product.

(2) 고객 범위(coverage)에 따른 세분화 적용(segmenting by customer coverage)
  이러한 형태의 전략적 세분화는 보통 마케팅 비용 대비 시장 점유율 상쇄효과를 통해 나온다. 비용과 시장 점유율의 관계에서 수익이 감소하는 시점이 있기 마련이다. 따라서 기업의 업무는 자사의 시장영역을 최적화 하는 것이 된다. 지리적으로 또는 유통으로 최적화가 되었다면, 마케팅 비용은 경쟁사보다 유리해 질 것이다.
  This segmentation normally emerges from a trade-off study of marketing costs versus market coverage. There appears always to be a point of diminishing returns in the cost versus coverage relationship. The corporation’s task is to optimize its range of market coverage, geographically and/or channel wise.

(3) 시장의 재 세분화(segmenting the market once more)
경쟁이 심한 시장에서, 기업과 직접적인 경쟁을 벌이는 업체는 비슷한 세분화 방법을 사용하는 경향이 있다. 따라서 최초의 세분화 효과는 시간이 갈수록 감소할 것이다. 그러므로 그러한 환경하에서는 핵심이 되는 소규모 핵심고객을 선택하여 그들이 원하는 것이 정말 무엇인지를 파악해야 할 것이다.
  In fierce competition, competitors are likely to be dissecting the market in similar ways. Over an extended period of time, the effectiveness of a given initial strategic segmentation will tend to decline. In such situations it is useful to pick a small group of customers and reexamine what it is that they are really looking for.

*고객 구성의 변화(changes in customer mix)
  어느 한 시장의 세분화의 변화가 일어나는 곳은 시장의 힘이 인구통계, 유통채널, 고객규모 등에 영향을 미치면서 사용자 구성의 분포를 변화시키는 곳이다. 이러한 변화는 기업 내부자원의 할당이 조정되어야 하고, 그 사업에 투입된 자원이 절대적으로 변경되어야 한다는 것을 의미한다
  A market segment change occurs where the market forces are altering the distribution of the user-mix over time by influencing demography, distribution channels, customer size, etc. This kind of change means that the allocation of corporate resources must be shifted and/ or the absolute level of resources committed in the business must be changed.

3. The Competitors (competitors-based strategies)

이 전략은 다음의 각 기능을 차별화 할 수 있는 자원을 검토함으로 수립될 수 있다 - 구매, 디자인, 엔지니어링, 서비스 etc..
Competitor based strategies can be constructed by looking at possible sources of differentiation in functions such as: purchasing, design, engineering, sales and servicing. The following aspects show ways in order to achieve this differentiation:

* 이미지의 힘(the power of an image)

홍보활동 및 광고에 더 많은 투자를 한 결과, 소니와 혼다는 더 많은 매출을 올릴 수 있었다. 이와같이, 경쟁사보다 더 많은 주위를 기울이며 PR과 광고등을 관리한다. 제품의 성능과 유통형태가 차별화 되기 어려울 때, 이미지는 긍정적인 차별화를 위한 유일한 원천이 될 수 있다. 하지만 지속적으로 모니터 되어야 한다.
  When product performance and mode of distribution are very difficult to distinguish, image may be the only source of positive differentiation.

* 이익과 비용구조의 차이에 투자(capitalizing on profit- and cost-structure differences)
  첫째, 이윤의 원천, 즉 신제품 판매나 서비스 제공을 통한 이윤같은 차이가 될 수 있다. 둘째, 고정비 비용 vs 가변비용 비율의 차이를 전략적으로 활용할 수 있다. 이유는 고정비용비율이 더 낮은 기업은 침체된 시장에서 가격을 낮출 수 있기 때문이다. 하지만 고정비율이 높은 기업에게 이 방법은 해로울 수 있다.
Firstly, the difference in source of profit might be exploited, from new products sales etc. Secondly, a difference in the ratio of fixed costs and variable costs might also be exploited strategically. A company with lower fixed cost ratio can lower prices in a sluggish market and hence gain market share.

* 중소기업의 전술(tactics for flyweights) hito-kane-mono
  소규모 기업이 매스미디어 광고와 대규모 R&D투자로 경쟁을 하게 될 경우, 늘어나는 고정비용은 수입의 상당량을 갉아먹게 된다. 그렇기 때문에 대기업과의 싸움에서 밀리게 될 것이 뻔하다. 한가지 예로, 소규모 기업은 딜러에게 추가판매분에 대한 높은 마진을 보장할 수 있도록 인센티브에 변화를 줌으로 절대적인 양이 아닌 점진적인 수준으로 기업에 인센티브를 가져올 수 있을 것이다.
  A favorite phrase of Japanese business planners is hito-kane-mono, standing for people, money and things. They believe that streamlined corporate management is achieved when these three critical resources are in balance without surplus or waste. For example: Cash over and beyond what competent people can intelligently expend is wasted. Of the three critical resources, funds should be allocated last. The corporation should firstly allocate management talent, based on the available mono (things): plant, machinery, technology, process know-how and functional strength. Once these hito (people) have developed creative and imaginative ideas to capture the business’s upward potential, the kane (money) should be given to the specific ideas and programs generated by the individual managers.

Kenichi Ohmae (born February 21, 1943) is one of the world's leading business and corporate strategists. He is known as Mr. Strategy and has developed the 3C's Model.

For a period of twenty-three years, Dr. Ohmae was a senior partner in McKinsey & Company, Inc., the international management consulting firm. As a co-founder of its strategic management practice, he has served companies in a wide spectrum of industries, including industrial and consumer electronics, financial institutions, telecommunications, office equipment, photographic equipment, industrial machinery, food, rubber, and chemicals.

Born in 1943 in Kitakyushu, he earned a BS from Waseda University, an MS from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, and a doctorate in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and subsequently worked as a senior design engineer for Hitachi. He then joined McKinsey & Company, becoming a senior partner, developing and running the company's Japan operations for a number of years. He gained an unrivaled knowledge and sensitivity to developments in a wide range of business sectors.

He now lives in Tokyo with his wife and two sons.

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① 3정의 정의
   3정은 정품, 정량, 정위치를 가리키는 것으로서 품질관리에서 가장 중요한 표준중시
   사상에 근거하고 있다.
   3정은 재료규격에 적합한 재료 및 부품을 구입하여 작업표준에 따라 정해진 부위에
   정확한 양을 사용하여 제품을 만들고, 제품 생산에 사용되었던 모든 지그/공구들을
   정해진 위치에 놓아서 다음 작업에 차질이 없도록 하는 것이다.
   이는 생산활동을 하는데 있어서 가장 기본이 되는 것으로 기업은 3정활동을 통해
   낭비요소를 제거하여 원가절감을 이루고 또한 최고 품질의 실현으로 급변하는
   경제상황에서 경쟁력을 갖추고자 하는 것이다. 


내   용

효 과

정  품

ㆍ재료규격에서 정한 재료?부품을 구입, 사용

ㆍ작업표준 준수하여 제품규격에 적합한 완제품 생산



정  량

ㆍ필요로 하는 수량만큼만 재료?부품을 구입, 보관

ㆍ정해진 수량만큼만 제품을 생산




ㆍ사용하는 지그?공구들을 정해진 위치에 놓는다

ㆍ구입한 재료?부품을 지정된 장소(자재창고)에서 보관

ㆍ생산된 완제품을 지정된 장소(제품창고)에서 보관



                       <3정의 내용>

② 5S의 정의
  정리(Seiri), 정돈(Seidon), 청소(Seisoh), 청결(Seiketsu), 습관화(Shitsuke)
  5S는 정리?정돈?청소?청결?습관화를 의미하는 일본어를 영어로 표기했을 때의 첫 글자
   'S’를 따서 만든 표현이다.
  5S의 개념은 현장과 작업 속에 숨어있는 낭비요소를 철저히 제거함으로써 생산효율을 
  높임과 동시에 종업원의 개선의식을 고취시켜 현장개선의 활성화를 도모하는 것이다.
  이와 같은 낭비제거 의식은 나아가 완전한 품질의 제품을 만들자는 기업의 목표를 달성
  하는데 중요한 역할을 한다.
  따라서, Single PPM 품질혁신활동을 본격적으로 추진하기에 앞서 활동 초기에
  5S활동을 도입하여 현장에 낭비제거 의식과 개선의식을 확립하고, 이러한 의식이
  확립된 후에는 종합적인 추진상황을 한눈으로 볼 수 있도록 눈으로 보는 관리를
  도입하여 지속적인 개선과 예방관리를 해 나아가도록 한다.

내   용

정  리

필요한 것과 불필요한 것을 구분하고 불필요한 것은 과감히 버린다.

정  돈

언제고 필요한 것을 쉽게 꺼낼수 있도록 가지런히 놓는다.

청  소

현장 및 설비의 먼지, 이물, 오물 등을 제거하여 깨끗하게 한다.

청  결

정리?정돈?청소 상태를 유지하여 쾌적한 현장환경을 만든다.


정리?정돈?청소?청결을 습관적으로 몸에 배이게 일상 생활화한다.

                              <5S의 정의>

③ 5S활동의 목적
  5S활동은 전사적 생산보전(Total Productive Maintenance: TPM)활동의 기본을 이루는
  것으로, 사내 각 부문에 있어 모든 낭비요소를 배제하여 생산에 임함으로써 생산의
  효율을 높이는데 그 의의가 있다.
  또한, 5S활동을 발전?심화시킴으로써 효율 높은 직장, 깨끗한 직장, 보람있는 직장을
  만들어 나가고 정해진 기준이 유지될 수 있도록 여러 가지 활동 방안을 강구하는데
  그 근본 목적이 있다.

④ 5S활동의 효과
  -  낭비를 줄인다.
  -  비용절감을 실현한다.
  -  품질을 향상한다.
  -  납기를 준수한다.
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